Heavy Metals Toxicity

Sunstones approach – prevention and elimination of disinfection by-products prior distribution to the end-user.

Disinfection by-products

Public water systems add disinfectants such as chlorine to protect drinking water from disease-causing organisms. These disinfectants also react with bromide and natural organic matter (NOM) in the water to form disinfectant by-products.

The US EPA and the WHO (among other regulatory entities) have identified groups of assigned maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these groups in general as well a for specific compounds within them.

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Bacteria and viruses

  • PbLead
  • CrChromium
  • AsArsenic
  • CdCadmium
  • HgMercury

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Heavy metal pollution

Heavy metals pollution

Significant heavy metal pollution in China comprises lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) and classified as strong carcinogens by the international Agency for Research on cancer.

The main source for heavy metals are mining, sewage irrigation and the manufacturing of metal-containing products along with other related production activities.

While consumption of bottled water may reduce the risk of absorption through ingestion, the absorption rate via skin and inhalation of toxic by-products is estimated to be higher.

Is our water safe to consume?

Health effects: Drinking water containing THM (Trihalomethanes) and HAAs in excess of the MCL over many years could cause liver, kidney, or central nervous system problems, as well as birth defects, early-term miscarriages , reproductive system disease, and an increased risk of cancer.

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